Question: In this pre-Civil War case, the question was whether Congress had the constitutional authority to prohibit slavery in free territories. A second question was whether the Constitution gave African Americans the right to sue in federal court. As a result, the 1857 court said no for both reasons: Congress could not ban slavery in the territories, and African Americans did not have the right to sue in federal court. In interpreting the Constitution as it existed prior to the Civil War Amendments (Constitutional Amendments 13, 14 and 15) to abolish slavery, the Court concluded that people of African descent had no rights as citizens. The court further argued that slaves were «property» and therefore could not be taken from their owners without due process. Relevance: The Dred Scott case became a central issue in the debate over the expansion of slavery and fueled the flames that led to the Civil War. During the trial, no arrest warrant or explanation was presented for the fact that no warrant or explanation had been given that he had not obtained. Mapp argued that searching and seizing objects in her home without a proper warrant violated her Fourth Amendment rights. The case made its way to the U.S. Supreme Court, where they ruled in favor of Mapp and implemented a finding that prosecutors cannot use evidence unconstitutionally obtained from Fourth Amendment law enforcement. The decision: The Supreme Court ruled unanimously that Amish families` right to religious freedom was not superseded by the state`s interest in education.
He believed the children had been sent to high school to endanger the Amish way of life. Religious freedom was seen as more important than the state`s interest in education, and this case created an exception for the Amish and others in similar situations. The case: In Wisconsin, children were required by law to attend school until age 16. But three Amish families refused to send their children to school after eighth grade when most of the children were 14, resulting in $5 in fines from the state. (Amish families believe that the content of secondary and higher education conflicts with their life of austerity.) They argued that mandatory attendance violated their First Amendment rights, particularly the free exercise clause. This decision was widely condemned. Over the next three decades, the court struck down minimum wage, association rights, and child safety laws with Lochner as a precedent before changing course and authorizing such laws. The March 1803 decision established the principle of judicial review, or the power of the Federal Court, to declare legislative and executive acts unconstitutional. In that case, President John Adams appointed several judges, including William Marbury, before the end of his term. After the introduction of the new Secretary of State, James Madison, these appointments were rejected.
Marbury and his colleagues eventually filed a lawsuit to regain their assigned positions and lost with a 6-0 decision. The decision: The Supreme Court ruled unanimously that state courts were required to appoint lawyers for those who could not afford to pay for their own lawyer. The decision: The justices ruled unanimously that Madison`s denial was unlawful and that the law under which Marbury sued was also unconstitutional. More importantly, this decision concluded that the Supreme Court has the power of «judicial review» to decide whether a law or executive measure is constitutional. This essentially gave the Supreme Court legal authority over any decision it made in the future. Cooper v. Aaron (1958) Holding: States cannot overturn federal court decisions. The case: Clarence Earl Gideon was charged with breaking into a billiard room. He asked a lawyer to defend him, but the Florida state court refused it. After defending himself poorly, Gideon was sent to prison.
Giddeon appealed, and the question was whether the right to counsel extended to defendants in state courts. Norma MCorvery, who is described in court documents as Jane Roe, was pregnant when she filed a class action lawsuit against the state of Texas. In 1971, Roe challenged the law enforced by Dallas County District Attorney Henry Wade, which states that abortions are otherwise illegal unless they save a mother`s life. The constitutional right to privacy is challenged in this case and is ultimately a violation of a woman`s Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause. In its final conclusion in 1973, the Court ruled that states can only restrict abortions towards the end of pregnancy to protect the life of the woman or fetus. Maintained the mandate that most Americans have health insurance. While the GoPo AP exam does not require hearing dates, it is important to be able to place each case in its political-historical context. This is the current list, but the cases required may change due to decisions of the Supreme Court and the College Board. The Supreme Court`s decision on same-sex marriage will immediately enter the pantheon of landmark Supreme Court cases, and for good reason. It regulates the great civil rights issue of the early 21st century.
In the Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress gave the Supreme Court the power to issue certain court orders. The Constitution did not give this power to the Court. Since the Constitution is the supreme law of the land, the court ruled that any contradictory law of Congress is without force. The ability of federal courts to declare legislation and executive measures unconstitutional is called judicial review. The courts never again had a final verdict in Dred Scott v. Sandford. Instead, the Scotts won their freedom because Irene Emerson remarried a U.S. Congressman and abolitionist who was embarrassed about owning slaves.
The Scotts were sold to Taylor Blow (their original owner), who finally released them on May 26, 1857. These cases are important and good to know, but will not be required knowledge for the AP examination. Marbury v. Madison is considered one of the most important cases in the history of the Supreme Court. This case was the first to apply the principle of judicial review, which gives federal courts the power to abrogate acts of Congress that violate the Constitution.